Top 10 Cyber Lawyers around the World
Top 10 Cyber Lawyers around the World
David R. Johnson
David R. Johnson is lawyer specializing in computer communications. He is a Senior Fellow at Center for Democracy and Technology, and a former chairman of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
Johnson graduated from Yale College with a B.A. summa cum laude in 1967. He completed a year of postgraduate study at University College, Oxford in 1968, and earned a J.D.from Yale Law School in 1972. For a year following graduation Johnson clerked for the Honorable Malcolm R. Wilkey of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.
Johnson joined Washington, D.C. law firm Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering in 1973, and became a partner in 1980. His practice focused primarily on the emerging area of electronic commerce, including counseling on issues relating to privacy, domain names and Internet governance issues, jurisdiction, copyright, taxation, electronic contracting, encryption, defamation, ISP and OSP liability, regulation, and other intellectual property matters.
Johnson helped to write the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (1986) Johnson was active in the introduction of personal computers in law practice, acting as President and CEO of Counsel Connect, a system connecting corporate counsel and outside law firms, and serving the Board of the Center for Computer-Assisted Legal Instruction (CALI) and as a Trustee of the National Center for Automated Information Research (NCAIR).
In October 1993, coincidental with the move of its main offices from Cambridge, Massachusetts to D.C., Johnson became a director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. In February 2005, while serving as the organization’s Senior Policy Fellow, Johnson replaced founder Mitch Kapor as Chairman of the EFF Board.
In the early 2000s, along with Post, Johnson was active in the re-organization of ICANN – penning several critical papers with Susan P. Crawford. In 2006 he collaborated with Crawford in the establishment of OneWebDay.
From 2004-2009 Johnson held the post of Visiting Professor at New York Law School. In May 2009 he commenced a one year Senior Fellowship with the Center for Democracy and Technology.
- Law and Borders – The Rise of Law in Cyberspace co-authored with David G. Post, 48 Stanford Law Review 1367 (May 1996) (1997 McGannon Award)
- The Life of the Law Online 51 N.Y.L. SCH. L. REV. 956 (2007) or First Monday, Issue 11-2.
- THE ACCOUNTABLE NET:PEER PRODUCTION OF INTERNET GOVERNANCE w/ Susan P. Crawford, John G. Palfrey, Jr. (Aspen Institute) 2004
Lawrence Lessig is the Director of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics at Harvard University, and a Professor of Law at Harvard Law School.
Prior to returning to Harvard, Lessig was a Professor of Law at Stanford Law School (where he was founder of Stanford’s Center for Internet and Society), Harvard Law School (1997-2000), and the University of Chicago Law School. Lessig clerked for Judge Richard Posner on the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals and Justice Antonin Scalia on the United States Supreme Court.
His current academic work addresses the question of “institutional corruption” roughly, influences within an economy of influence that weaken the effectiveness of an institution, or weaken public trust. His current work at the EJ Safra Lab oversees a 5 year research project addressing institutional corruption in a number of institutional contexts.
Lessig has won numerous awards, including the Free Software Foundation’s Freedom Award, and was named one of Scientific American’s Top 50 Visionaries. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society.
Lessig serves on the boards of Creative Commons, MAPLight, Brave New Film Foundation, Change Congress, The American Academy, Berlin, Freedom House and iCommons.org. He is on the advisory board of the Sunlight Foundation. He has previously served on the boards of the Free Software Foundation, the Software Freedom Law Center, Electronic Frontier Foundation, the Public Library of Science, Free Press, and Public Knowledge. Lessig was also a columnist for Wired, Red Herring, and the Industry Standard.
Lessig earned a BA in economics and a BS in management from the University of Pennsylvania, an MA in philosophy from Cambridge, and a JD from Yale. He has received honorary degrees from The University of Amsterdam, Athabasca University, and The Georgian-American University.
Code is law
In computer science, “code” typically refers to the text of a computer program (the source code). In law, “code” can refer to the texts that constitute statutory law. In his book Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Lessig explores the ways in which code in both senses can be instruments for social control, leading to his dictum that “Code is law.”
Despite presenting an anti-regulatory standpoint in many fora, Lessig still sees the need for legislative enforcement of copyright. He has called for limiting copyright terms for creative professionals to five years, but believes that introducing the bureaucratic procedure needed to renew trademarks, by making copyright need to be renewed for up to 75 years after this five-year term, would mean that creative professionals’ work, many of the independent, would become more easily and quickly available.
In 2002, Lessig received the Award for the Advancement of Free Software from the Free Software Foundation (FSF), and on March 28, 2004 he was elected to the FSF’s Board of Directors. In 2006, Lessig was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Lessig is also a well-known critic of copyright term extensions.
He proposed the concept of “Free Culture”. He also supports free software and open spectrum. At his Free Culture keynote at theO’Reilly Open Source Convention 2002, half of his speech was about software patents, which he views as a rising threat to both free/open source software and innovation.
In March 2006, Lessig joined the board of advisors of the Digital Universe project. A few months later, Lessig gave a talk on the ethics of the Free Culture Movement at the 2006 Wikimania conference.
Lessig claimed in 2009 that, because 70% of young people obtain digital information from illegal sources, the law should be changed.
Lessig has long been known to be a supporter of Net Neutrality. In 2006, he testified before the US Senate that he believed Congress should ratify Michael Powell’s four Internet freedoms and add a restriction to access-tiering, i.e. he does not believe content providers should be charged different amounts. The reason is that the Internet, under the neutral end-to-end design is an invaluable platform for innovation, and the economic benefit of innovation would be threatened if large corporations could purchase faster service to the detriment of newer companies with less capital. However, Lessig has supported the idea of allowing ISPs to give consumers the option of different tiers of service at different prices. He was reported on CBC News as saying that he has always been in favour of allowing internet providers to charge differently for consumer access at different speeds. He said, “Now, no doubt, my position might be wrong. Some friends in the network neutrality movement as well as some scholars believe it is wrong – that it doesn’t go far enough. But the suggestion that the position is ‘recent’ is baseless. If I’m wrong, I’ve always been wrong.”
Combating sexual abuse
In May 2005, it was revealed that Lessig had experienced sexual abuse by the director at the American Boychoir School which he had attended as an adolescent. Lessig reached a settlement with the school in the past, under confidential terms. He revealed his experiences in the course of representing another student victim, John Hardwicke, in court. In August 2006, he succeeded in persuading the New Jersey Supreme Court to restrict the scope of immunity radically, which had protected nonprofits that failed to prevent sexual abuse from legal liability.
Steven Chabinsky served as Deputy Assistant Director and as the highest-ranking civilian position in the FBI’s Cyber Division. In that capacity he helped oversee all FBI investigative strategies, intelligence analysis, policy development, and major outreach efforts that focused on protecting the United States from cyber attack, cyber espionage, online child exploitation, and Internet fraud. For over ten years, Mr. Chabinsky helped shape and draft many of the most significant US national cyber and infrastructure protection strategies, to include the Homeland Security Act of 2002, the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace of 2003 and, in 2008, National Security Presidential Directive 54, which includes the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative.
Prior to joining the FBI, Mr. Chabinsky worked as an associate attorney in the law firm of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett in New York City practicing complex litigation including insurance and reinsurance contract disputes, class action product liability, and internal investigations. Mr. Chabinsky clerked for the Honorable Judge Dennis G. Jacobs (now Chief Judge) of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and holds his undergraduate and law degrees, both with honors, from Duke University. He has testified before the House and Senate, and is a frequent keynote speaker and guest lecturer. His ideas have been featured in print news media, he has appeared on radio and television, and he is the author of the article “Cybersecurity Strategy: A Primer for Policy Makers and Those on the Front Line,” published in the peer-reviewed Journal of National Security Law and Policy. He is the recipient of numerous awards and recognitions, including the National Security Agency’s bronze medallion for inspired leadership, the ODNI’s bronze medallion for Collection, and the Rank Award of Meritorious Executive conferred by the President of the United States for unwavering leadership and sustained extraordinary performance. In August 2012, Mr. Chabinsky was selected as one of Security magazine’s “Most Influential People in Security.”
Pavan Duggal is one of the pioneers in the field of Cyberlaw and is Asia’s leading authority on Cyberlaw. He is a practicing Advocate, Supreme Court of India and a Cyberlaw Consultant. He is the President of Cyberlaws.Net, The Cyberlaw Consultancy which is Internet’s unique and first ever consultancy dedicated exclusively to the new field of Cyberlaw.
He is the Founder President of Cyberlaw Asia, Asia’s pioneering organization committed to the passing of dynamic Cyberlaws in the Asian continent. Cyberlaw Asia is engaged in the process of creating greater awareness about Cyberlaws in different countries of Asia.
Pavan has been associated with UNESCO on Ethical, Legal, and Societal Challenges of Cyberspace in Asia and the Pacific. He is the consultant to United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) on the Asia Pacific Conference on Cybercrime and Information Security 2002.
He is Member of Nominating Committee of The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) . He is also member of the Membership Advisory Committee and Membership Implementation Task Force (MITF) of ICANN and is involved in the legal issues of At Large Membership of this global body.
He is the Member of the Public Interest Registry’s.Org Advisory Council .
Pavan is doing a lot of work in the area of Intellectual property rights in the electronic medium and in cyberspace. He is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration and Mediation Centre’s Panel of Neutrals. He has acted as an arbitrator in various domain name disputes of the World Intellectual Property Organization.
Pavan is the member of AFACT Legal Working Group of UN/CEFACT.
Pavan has vetted and reviewed the e-primer on Cyberlaw prepared by e-Asean Task Force as an expert authority.
He is the Cyberlaw correspondent for the Global Legal Publication JURIST: The Legal Education Network.
He is advising the Controller of Certifying Authorities, Ministry of Information Technology, Government of India on issues concerning the Indian Cyberlaw namely, The Information Technology Act, 2000. He is also the Member of the IT Act Legal Advisory Group constituted by the Controller of Certifying Authorities.
Pavan has also the credit of having done pioneering work in the field of Convergence Law. Pavan Duggal has testified before the Indian Parliamentary Standing Committee on Information Technology, on the Communication Convergence Bill, 2001.
Pavan is the Founder President of Cyberlaw India . He has also founded The Cyberlaw Association. He is the Founder of Cyberarbitration, an online system of alternative dispute resolution.
Being a prolific writer , he has authored three books entitled ” Cyberlaw in India ” , ” Cyberlaw The Indian Perspective ” and ” Indian Convergence Law ” . Pavan writes regularly, inter-alia amongst others, every Sunday his Cyberlaw column ” Brief Cases ” in The Economic Times.
He has been invited as a distinguished speaker on various issues of Cyberlaw at numerous International Internet Fora, conferences and exhibitions like India Internet World, 1998, 1999 , 2000 & 2001 at New Delhi; E-biz-2000, E-BizIndia-2000, E-Governance Conference; Apricot 1999 at Singapore; and Regional Meeting of Infoethics (UNESCO), 2000 at Beijing.
Pavan has been invited as a speaker on Cyber Terrorism at the 11th Annual AMIC conference in Perth, Australia. He was also plenary speaker at the Regional Seminar on the Root Causes of Terrorism and the Role of Youth organized by the World Youth Foundation on the subject of Cybercrime and Cyber Terrorism. He was invited by the Mauritian Management Association to conduct the first of its kind seminar on Cyberlaw in Mauritius in August 2002.
He has been a member of number of committees namely:
- The ICANN Nominating Committee representing the Asia Pacific region, 2003 and 2004.
- Membership Advisory Committee of The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
Parry Aftab is an American lawyer specializing in Internet privacy and security law, and is considered “one of the founders of the field of cyberlaw”. She is the Executive Director of WiredSafety.org, a volunteer organization dedicated to online safety. She was featured in Chris Hansen’s book, To Catch a Predator. She created the StopCyberbullying Coalition to help address cyberbullying and digital abuse issues.
She was appointed to the federal NTIA Online Safety and Technology Working Group (OSTWG) and the Berkman Center’s Internet Safety Technical Task Force (ISTTF). Facebook appointed her to its Safety Advisory Board. She advises MTV as well.
Aftab assisted the UN at its recent Cyberhate Conference. Aftab was one of 24 experts and industry leaders appointed to the Congressionally created NTIA Online Safety and Technology Working Group (OSTWG) in 2009. She was one of the 29 members of the Berkman Center’s Internet Safety Technical Task Force (ISTTF). On April 15, 2009 Parry joined Diane Sawyer in the first town meeting on morning TV, on the topic of sexting. She keynoted the Children and ICT event held in Gijón, Spain as part of the EU Safer Internet initiative.
In 2009, Parry Aftab created the StopCyberbullying Coalition to help address cyberbullying and digital abuse issues. The StopCyberbullying Coalition members include Facebook, AOL, Microsoft, Build-A-Bear, Procter & Gamble, Google, Yahoo!, Disney, Webkinz, the Girl Scouts of the USA, Buzz Marketing Group, MTV and others. Her work on sexting issues began in 1998 when a teenaged girl sent nude and sexual videos to a boy she liked. She is working with the families of the girls who took their own lives after their sexting images were used to harass them and were broadcast to their communities.
Facebook appointed Aftab to its Safety Advisory Board. She advises MTV as well.
Parry Aftab told the Minnesota School Board Association at their annual meeting in August 2009 that they need to address cyberbullying. She warned that they have to adopt a cell phone policy and enforce it.
Following September 11, Parry Aftab’s charity, WiredSafety, helped protect the families of those killed at the World Trade Center. She worked to help children worldwide get past the fear they felt following the attacks. She found a rescue worker who had worked at Ground Zero with his search and rescue dog, Servous. To help children understand the rescue dogs issue better, she wrote a children’s story published on WiredKids.org.
Awards and honors
In June 2009, Aftab contributed to the United Nations “2009 Unlearning Intolerance Seminar” entitled, “Cyberhate: Danger in Cyber Space.”
In November 2010, “Mrs. Aftab [became] the 2010 New Jersey recipient of the FBI Director’s Community Leadership Award (DCLA)”
- Child Abuse on the Internet. Ending the Silence, Carlos A. Arnaldo, Ed., Chapter 21: “The Technical Response: Blocking, Filtering and Rating the Internet”, pp. 135–140 (2001)ISBN 92-3-103728-5 ISBN 978-9231037283
- Inocencia en Peligro : Conviva con sus Hijos y Protéjalos Cuando Naveguen por Internet (2001) ISBN 970-10-3297-7 ISBN 978-9701032978
- The Parent’s Guide to Protecting Your Children in Cyberspace (1999) ISBN 0-07-135752-1 ISBN 978-0071357524
- Parents Guide to the Internet: And How to Protect Your Children in Cyberspace (1997) ISBN 0-9660491-0-1 ISBN 978-0966049107
- Servous The Rescue Dog (online, undated)
S J Tubrazy
S J Tubrazy ‘Shahid Jamal Tubrazy’ is practicing lawyer in banking recovery laws and cyber laws from Pakistan. He is managing partner of sjtubrazy & co a law firm locates in Lahore Pakistan. He is professor of cyber laws in reputed law colleges. He has conducted various seminars liaison with FIA (NR3C) a law federal enforcement agency Pakistan. He is pioneer to lay down the basic foundation ‘cyber jurisprudence’ and also interpret it exhaustively.
Works / Publication
Validated Cyber Law Definitions by SJTubrazy
Cyber Jurisprudence , Quantum Computing, Cyberspace, Cyber lawyer, Cyberwill, Digital Afterlife , Digital Death, Digital Inheritance, Digital Will, Digital Property, Digital Assets, Clouding computing, SJ Tubrazy lawyer, cyber advocate, internet lawyer, internet advocate, internet lawyer, computer lawyer, Pakistan, Digital Worth, Digital Ownership, Online Legacy, Digital Vault, Digital Storage, Internet Transfer, Web Legacy, Web Death, Web Storage, Web Ownership, Web Footprint, Virtual Death, Virtual Property, Virtual Identity
- Manual of Cyber Laws in Pakistan. (2013-14)
- The Investigation for Fair Trial Act 2013. (2013-14)
- Electronic Transaction laws in PakistanPractice and Procedure ( 2013-14)
- Electronic Fund Transfers laws in Pakistan,Practice and Procedure Up to Date Commentary ( 2013-2014)
- Uniform Domain Name Disputes Resolution Policy (Comprehensive Commentary with relevant WIPO decisions) (2013-14)
- Prevention of Eletronic Crimes Ordinance (commentary) (2007-08)
- Uniform Domain Name Disputes Resolution Policy (Commentary with WIPO decisions) (2006-07)
- Awards of Merits (PLC+FIA)
- Cyber Jurisprudence
- Cyber Execution.
Wok for Public Interest
- Writ Petition for enforcement of Section 12 of Electronic Ordinance 2002
- Case Against Goolge & Bing for search results pornographic images for non-pornographic terms ‘HOT’
John Beardwood is a partner of the firm, engaged in a corporate/commercial practice, with an emphasis on outsourcing and procurement, technology and privacy law related matters. John is regularly listed among the world’s preeminent internet and e-commerce lawyers in Who’s Who Legal – The International Who’s Who of Business Lawyers where, in addition to being referred to as “an authority on outsourcing” in the guide to Internet and E-Commerce Lawyers, he is identified as being both one of the two most highly nominated Canadian lawyers in the guide, and one of the ten “most highly regarded individuals” globally; and is also included as a leading lawyer in the Internet & e-Commerce chapter of Who’s Who Legal: Canada 2010. He is listed inChambers Global – The World’s Leading Lawyers for Business 2010, for Information Technology. He is consistently recognized in The Best Lawyers in Canada for information technology law, and highly recommended as an outsourcing practitioner in thePLC Which Lawyer? Yearbook and in the PLC Outsourcing Handbook. His biography is included in the Canadian Who’s Who.
John is Co-Chair of the National Technology and Intellectual Property Practice Group; Co-Chair of the National Outsourcing Practice Group; and Vice-Chair of the Privacy and Information Protection Practice Group.
Honours and Awards
- Chambers Global 2011-2013 for Information Technology
- Canadian Legal Lexpert Directory 2010-2011 for Computer & IT Law
- Who’s Who Legal Guide to Internet & e-Commerce Lawyers as being one of the ten “most highly regarded individuals” globally
- Practical Law Company’s Cross-border Outsourcing Handbook 2010 and Which Lawyer? Yearbook 2008-2009 as “Highly Recommended” for Outsourcing (Canada)
- International Who’s Who of Internet and e-Commerce Lawyers in 2008-2009
- Best Lawyers in Canada 2008-2013 for Information Technology Law
- National Post’s “Best Lawyers in Canada” 2007-2008 for IT law
William “Terry” W. Fisher
William “Terry” W. Fisher is the WilmerHale Professor of Intellectual Property Law at Harvard Law School and faculty director of the Berkman Center for Internet and Society. His primary research and teaching areas are intellectual property law and legal history.
In his book Promises to Keep: Technology, Law and the Future of Entertainment (Stanford University Press 2004), Fisher proposes replacing much of copyright and digital rights management with a government-administered reward system. Under such a scheme, movies and songs would be legal to download. Authors and artists would receive compensation from the government based on how often their works were read, watched, or listened to. The system would be funded by taxes.
Fisher is one of the founders of Noank Media, a private enterprise similar in many ways to the proposal of Promises to Keep. Noank licenses and distributes digital content by collecting blanket-license revenues from internet services providers and distributing revenues to authors and artists based on the size of their audience.
Fisher was among the lawyers, along with his colleague John Palfrey and the law firm of Jones Day, who represented Shepard Fairey, pro bono, in his law suit against the Associated Press related to the iconic Hope poster.
An alumnus of Amherst College, Fisher received a law degree and a Ph.D. in the history of American civilization from Harvard University. He was a law clerk to U.S. Supreme Courtjustice Thurgood Marshall.
Prof. Fisher is currently teaching an online version of Copyright law course on edX to a group of selected students.
Marvin Ammori is a leading First Amendment lawyer and Internet policy expert. He was instrumental to the adoption of network neutrality rules in the US and abroad–having been perhaps the nation’s leading legal advocate advancing network neutrality–and also instrumental to the defeat of the SOPA and PIPA copyright/censorship bills.
He is a Legal Fellow with the New America Foundation Open Technology Initiative and an Affiliate Scholar at Stanford Law School’s Center for Internet & Society. He also heads a law firm and consulting practice, the Ammori Group, whose clients include leading Internet companies and nonprofit organizations. The Ammori Group’s site includes a longer bio and some kind words about his work.
Before starting the Ammori Group, he was a law professor at Nebraska, where he led a program working with U.S. CyberCommand to educate the military’s first generation of “cyberwar” lawyers. His main academic contributions have been in First Amendment theory and doctrine. He left academia to return to Washington, DC, to be a participant again, rather than a spectator, in shaping public policy to advance innovation and free speech.
Before being a law professor, he was a leading advocate for civil liberties and consumer rights as the head lawyer of Free Press. In that capacity, and as the lead lawyer on the seminal Comcast/BitTorrent case, he was perhaps the nation’s leading lawyer on network neutrality, the nation’s most debated Internet policy issue and amongst the nation’s most important recent policy debates. During 2007 and 2008, he was a technology policy advisor to the Obama campaign and to the Presidential Transition.
He is also a Term Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a member of the Council’s Term Member Advisory Committee. He is an Affiliate Fellow of the Yale Information Society Project, an advisor to the University of Michigan’s Michigan in Washington Program, and collaborates with Stanford’s Center for International Security and Cooperation.
He graduated from Harvard Law School, taught on fellowships at Yale and Georgetown law schools, and earned his undergraduate degree from the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. He loves ice cream.
Works / Publications
Can the FTC Save Uber?
Author(s): Marvin Ammori
Taxi commissions are crushing disruptive transportation apps. Marvin Ammori discusses in this Slate article. Read more » about Can the FTC Save Uber?
The Conversation: Time to Mobilize for Cyberwar
Author(s): Marvin Ammori
PROTECT IP Act (S.968) and Stop Online Privacy Act (H.R.3261)
Author(s): Marvin Ammori
First Amendment Architecture
Author(s): Marvin Ammori
David Levine is an Assistant Professor of Law at Elon University School of Law and an Affiliate Scholar at the Center for Internet and Society (CIS). Aside from the copyright and fair use areas for which CIS has become known, Dave’s research interests include the operation of intellectual property law at the intersection of the technology field and public life, intellectual property’s impact on transparency, and the impact of copyright law in the arts. Currently, Dave is researching the use of trade secrecy’s inevitable disclosure doctrine and intellectual property law’s impact on public transparency.
In addition to the publications below, Dave has been quoted in articles in newspapers including the Los Angeles Times and appeared on CNBC, spoken at several intellectual property and cyberlaw conferences, and testified before the Library of Congress’ National Recording Preservation Board. Dave also hosts an interview talk show on KZSU-FM (Stanford), 90.1 on the dial, entitled “Hearsay Culture” where he interviews people involved with technology. The show airs from 5 to 6 PM PST on Wednesdays, and is available by live stream here, by iTunes podcast here, on CIS’ podcast feed here, or on the Hearsay Culture website feed.
After earning a bachelor of science degree from Cornell University’s New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations in 1994, Dave was the Legislative Aide for the Hon. Sandy Galef, New York State Assemblywoman; additionally, he was the volunteer Field Director for the New York State chapter of the Concord Coalition, with which he remains involved. During law school, Dave was a summer extern for the Hon. Adlai S. Hardin, United States Bankruptcy Judge in the Southern District of New York.
Upon graduating from Case Western Reserve University School of Law, Dave practiced law in Manhattan as an associate in the litigation departments of Windels Marx Lane & Mittendorf LLP (formerly Lane & Mittendorf LLP) and thereafter Pryor Cashman Sherman & Flynn LLP. At Pryor Cashman, Dave worked on a variety of cases in the intellectual property and technology litigation fields for several entertainment and fashion industry clients. Dave was an Assistant Corporation Counsel for the New York City Law Department, Office of the Corporation Counsel. In 2005-2007.
Works / Publications .
Law professors challenge secrecy in fracking
Author(s): David Levine
Publication Date: April 2, 2013
The Social Layer of Freedom of Information Law
Author(s): David Levine.
Note: Post based on author’s personal research data collecting.